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Wisdom of Sumerian and Mesopotamian Goddesses

Updated: Sep 14, 2019


Ereshkigal - the Goddess of the Underworld


Ereshkigal is a Sumerian Goddess, queen of the land of the dead. She is an elder sister to Inanna. Inanna once travelled to the underworld with the aim of extending her powers, but she got stripped and killed. Ereshkigal brings Inanna back to life, under one condition, her husband has to takes her place instead of Inanna in underworld. Ereshkigal's consort and husband was God of plague, Nergal. Ereshkigal was the only one who made laws and passed judgment in her kingdom of dead. Negral married Ereshkigal only after being rejected by other goddesses.


Gula - Goddess of Healing


Gula is a Babylonian Goddess of Healing and medicine. She was referred to as a Great Physician or a Great Lady. Her totem animal is dog, whose tongue could cure sores. She was the one who gave and preserve the life. She is a daughter of God Anu, father of all gods. She is also a wife of god Ninurta, God of Thunder and the plow.



Inanna - Goddess of Embracing the Shadow side


Inanna is a Sumerian Queen of Heavens, a great goddess of the Bronze Age,. She was clothed with the stars, wearing zodiac around her waist. She ruled the Heavens, the rain giving clouds, the moon and was a ruler of whole Sumeria. Once she tricked her father, Enki, God of Wisdom, to give her hundred cultural objects, which she gave to humans. She wanted to visit her sister Ereskigal, who lived in the Underworld. She had a form of a lioness, she was huge, dark and hairy. She was all what Inanna wasn't. She was her shadow side, which Inanna kept hidden and buried inside her. Inanna went to visit Ereshkigal out of her free will, in her all glory. She was stripped seven times and killed at the end. She was left handing on a hook for three days and three nights. She was only allowed to leave the Underworld, if she could find someone to take her place. Because she found out that her husband didn't mourn her death, she demands that it will be him who has to take her place in Underworld.


Ishtar - Goddess of Communion


Ishtar is a Mesopotamian Goddess, and an Sumerian interpretation of Goddess Inanna. Ishtar was a seer and know as "she who directs the oracles". The was a Goddess's priestess and would commune with her on behalf of those who came to goddess's temple to seek help. She was married to Tammuz. When Tammuz died, Ishtar traveled to the underworld to find him, granting them en internal life. Tammuz is an Sumerian interpretation of Inanna's lover, who she tricked to come to the underworld as her substitute. Legend says, that Tammuz would spend 6 months with Ishtar, while his sister took his place in the Underworld, where he would return for next 6 months of the year. Ishtar is said to watch over future king of Mesopotamia, Sargon I, when his mother put him as a baby into a basket down the Euphrates River. She protected Sargon who grew up as gardener's son into a great King of Southern Mesopotamia.


Lady of Beasts - Goddess of Relationships


Lady of Beasts was only known to people of Sumer, Crete and Indus Valley. She is not very known to other cultures, as her worship predated writing. She is very strong fertility figure. She was also known as Cosmic Creatix - fertile, live-giving force. She is often portrayed as pregnant, surrounded by pregnant animals surrounding her. There is usually a lion sitting next to her, as she sits on the throne - representing sovereignty.


Lilith - Goddess of Power and Independence


Lilith is originally the Sumerian Goddess of Heaven, older than Inanna. The Hebrew creation story has transformed her into a first wife of Adam. Adam expected her to be submissive, but she refused. Lilith was made from same dust as her husband and considered herself his equal. She refused to lie beneath Adam, she insisted, that as they are created equally, they needed to also have sex equally. Adam refused, so she left him and fled to the Sea of Reeds. Three angels tried and failed to bring her back to her husband. As a result, Lilith's children were damned to death. Later she was described to be a wicked creature, a demon. She was blamed for sudden infant deaths and arousing men their sleep. Nevertheless what is has been blamed for, Lilith is a symbol of feminine power and independence, a warrior for all women who give their power away.


Sophia - Goddess of Divine Wisdom


Sophia is a Gnostic Goddess of Divine Wisdom, she mediates between heaven and Earth, a descendant of Pistic, the Goddess of Faith. She has many faces and many names from Black Goddess to the Divine Feminine. Sophia, the mother of creation, created a consort Yaldaboaoth (Jehovah) out of chaos, who then fathered the seven gods who ruled the heavens. But Jehovah thought he was alone in the Universe. He didn't know Sophia existed until she revealed herself to him in form of pure light. Haga Sophia in Istanbul holds her shrine. Her symbol is a dove, representation of the spirit. She wears a crown of stars.


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